The Normal Eye

by | Oct 15, 2021 | Anatomy / Normal Eye

The Cornea

Light from the world around you enters your eye through the clear cornea. Most light focusing occurs between air and its curvature. It consists of several layers of clear living cells and collagen.

The Angle and Trabecular Meshwork

Another important part of your eye, near the outer edge of the colored iris inside, is an area called the angle. Here, there is a constant inflow and outflow of nourishing, clear aqueous fluid. This fluid travels from behind your iris, through the pupil, and out an area called the trabecular meshwork.

The Natural Lens

Behind your cornea, your eye has a clear lens that focuses light onto the retina. The lens is flexible, and can change shape, to fine-focus light from both near and far objects.

The lens consists of four layers. It is this lens, inside your eye, that provides fine-focusing for your vision.

The Ciliary Body

A very important structure encircling the lens inside your eye is called the ciliary body. Muscles inside the ciliary body change the shape of the flexible lens for our fine-focusing.

The Vitreous Humor

The normal eye is filled with a gel-like material called vitreous humor. Over time, the vitreous can undergo change, forming small collagen condensations called floaters. These floaters can appear to move in our vision.

The Fundus

The back inner surface of the eye is called the ocular fundus. It consists of the light-absorbing retina, optic disc, macula, and retinal vascular system. All these features can be examined by your eye care provider through the pupil using fundoscopy.

The Retina

The retina is on the back inner wall of the eye. It is an amazing creation of light-absorbing cells. These cells transform light into nerve impulses and are called rods and cones. They are nourished by a complex vascular structure underneath called the choroid.

The Macula or Fovea

Your clearest vision occurs at the centre of the retina, in a very small area called the macula. The macula has a very high concentration of cone cells.

The Optic Nerve

Light is transformed into nerve impulses within the retina. These nerve impulses travel out of your eye through the optic nerve to your brain.


Your eyes are part of a very complex and beautiful visual system. Any changes to your eyes, eyelids, or vision should be brought to your eye care provider’s attention immediately.

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